Medical Conditions

American Academy of Pediatrics

2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

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COVID-19, discovered in December 2019, quickly became a global pandemic. Doctors and researchers continue to learn more about it every day. Safe and effective vaccines are now available, offering hope for an end to the pandemic. Until everyone is vaccinated, however, the virus continues to spread.

Here’s what we know now and how you can protect your family and others.

Symptoms of COVID-19

Symptoms of COVID-19 range from mild to severe and generally begin 2–14 days after being exposed to the virus. Someone with these symptoms may have COVID-19:

  • fever and chills

  • a cough

  • shortness of breath of difficulty breathing

  • muscle or body aches

  • headache

  • sore throat

  • new loss of taste or smell

  • congestion or runny nose

  • nausea or vomiting

  • diarrhea

Although COVID-19 is a new disease, it belongs to a family of coronaviruses that usually cause illnesses like the common cold. As the virus spreads, we see many people with mild symptoms, but others who get very sick and need to be cared for in a hospital. Although most people recover, many have died. The reason health officials are concerned is because the virus is new, which makes it hard to predict how it will continue to affect people.

Who is most at risk?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), children do not seem to be at higher risk for getting COVID-19. However, some people, including children with special health care needs, may be. Those at increased risk include:

  • Older adults

  • People who have chronic medical conditions like:

    • Heart disease

    • Diabetes

    • Lung disease (including asthma)

    • Congenital heart conditions

    • Conditions that weaken the immune system

    • Obesity

If your child has been exposed to COVID-19, or you are concerned about your child’s symptoms, call your pediatrician immediately.

Does COVID-19 affect children the same way as adults?

While most children with COVID-19 have mild symptoms or have no symptoms at all, they can still spread the disease to others. In addition, severe COVID-19 illness and deaths have been reported in children under one year old and those with underlying health conditions may be more likely to develop severe illness.

How to protect your family

Here are things you can do to keep your family healthy:

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use hand sanitizer. Look for one that is 60% or higher alcohol-based. Avoid making your own hand sanitizer. If made incorrectly, it can burn the skin.

  • Reduce close contact with others by practicing physical distancing. This means staying home as much as possible and avoiding groups. If you do need to run an errand like going to the grocery store or pharmacy for your family, the CDC recommends wearing a face mask.

  • Teach kids to cough and sneeze into a tissue (make sure to throw it away after each use!) or to cough and sneeze into their arm or elbow, not their hands.

  • Avoid touching your face; teach your children to do the same.

  • Clean and disinfect your home as usual using regular household cleaning sprays or wipes.

  • Wash stuffed animals or other plush toys, following manufacturer’s instructions in the warmest water possible and dry them completely.

  • Follow local and state guidance on travel and stay at home restrictions.

  • Get COVID-19 vaccines as soon as they become available to your family. Vaccines are now authorized for adults and adolescents age 12 and up. Clinical trials for vaccines given to younger children and infants still need to be completed.

How to care for someone in your family with COVID-19

People who are mildly ill with COVID-19 are usually able to isolate at home during their illness. However, it may be recommended to take these additional steps:

  • Separate family members with COVID-19 from others as much as possible. The person with the virus should stay in a specific room and away from other people in your home. Ideally, they should use a separate bathroom, if available. Limit visitors in the house.

  • Avoid contact with pets. This includes petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food.

  • Call ahead before visiting the doctor. This will help them take extra steps to keep other people from getting infected or exposed.

  • Avoid sharing personal household items. Don’t share dishes, drinking glasses, cups, eating utensils, towels, or bedding with other people or pets in the home. After using these items, they should be washed thoroughly with soap and water.

  • Extra cleaning for all “high-touch” surfaces. These include counters, tabletops, doorknobs, bathroom fixtures, toilets, phones, keyboards, tablets, and bedside tables. Also, clean any surfaces that may have blood, stool, or body fluids on them. Use a household cleaning spray or wipes and follow the instructions on the label.

  • Monitor symptoms. Call your doctor or health department right away if the illness gets worse.

    NOTE: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) agrees with the World Health Organization about the use of ibuprofen during the COVID-19 pandemic. Right now, there is not enough evidence to recommend you avoid using ibuprofen, unless you have an underlying medical condition that makes ibuprofen less safe. Using acetaminophen is a reasonable and safe option. In children, the goal should be to improve their overall comfort, monitor their activity, look for signs of serious illness, and make sure they drink enough liquids.

    The AAP recommends parents talk with their child’s pediatrician about the correct dose before using any medication. Use a medication syringe or dropper to measure the correct amount because they are more reliable than a measuring spoon.

Dealing with school and child care closings

In many communities, schools and child care centers have shifted to virtual learning or temporarily closed to help slow the spread of the virus. If your children are still at home due to the outbreak, see Working and Learning from Home During the COVID-19 Outbreak for tips on balancing schooling, working, media time and more.

Talking to children about COVID-19

There’s a lot of news coverage about the outbreak of COVID-19 and it can be overwhelming for parents and frightening to kids. The AAP encourages parents and others who work closely with children to filter information and talk about it in a way that their child can understand.

These tips can help:

  • Simple reassurance. Remind children that researchers and doctors are learning as much as they can, as quickly as they can, about the virus and are taking steps to keep everyone safe.

  • Give them control. It’s also a great time to remind your children of what they can do to help – washing their hands often, coughing into a tissue or their sleeves, and getting enough sleep.

  • Watch for signs of anxiety. Children may not have the words to express their worry, but you may see signs of it. They may get cranky, be more clingy, have trouble sleeping, or seem distracted. Keep the reassurance going and try to stick to your normal routines.

  • Monitor their media. Keep young children away from frightening images they may see on TV, social media, computers, etc. For older children, talk together about what they are hearing on the news and correct any misinformation or rumors you may hear.

  • Be a good role model. COVID-19 doesn’t discriminate and neither should we. While COVID-19 started in Wuhan, China, it doesn’t mean that having Asian ancestry – or any other ancestry – makes someone more susceptible to the virus or more contagious. Stigma and discrimination hurt everyone by creating fear or anger towards others. When you show empathy and support to those who are ill, your children will too.

For more information

American Academy of Pediatrics
www.aap.org and www.HealthyChildren.org

Any websites, brand names, products, or manufacturers are mentioned for informational and identification purposes only and do not imply an endorsement by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The AAP is not responsible for the content of external resources. Information was current at the time of publication. The information contained in this publication should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Source: HealthyChildren.org (Updated 5/12/2021)

© 2021 American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved.